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By Kenneth S. Cohen
We live in a field of qi, "vital breath" or "life
energy." Yet, like a fish in water or a bird in flight, we
are unaware of the medium that supports us. Qigong means "working
with the qi." It is the ancient Chinese art and science of
becoming aware of this life energy and learning how to control its
flow through a precise choreography of posture, movement, respiratory
technique, and meditation. Like biofeedback, qigong teaches psychophysiological
self-regulation; the student becomes aware of bodily functions conventionally
considered involuntary-- blood pressure, respiratory rate, even
the flow of blood and nutrients to internal organs-- and learns
to restore a healthier balance. However, unlike biofeedback, no
technical devices are needed. Qigong is one of the most cost-effective
self-healing methods in the world. The only investment needed is
time, a half-hour to an hour each day; the dividends of better health,
increased vitality, and peaceful alertness accrue daily and are
Qigong is like a great river fed by four major tributaries: shamanism,
spirituality, medicine, and martial arts:
An ancient text, The Spring and Autumn Annals, states that in mythic
times a great flood covered much of China. Stagnant waters produced
widespread disease. The legendary shaman-emperor Yu cleared the
land and diverted the waters into rivers by dancing a bear dance
and invoking the mystical power of the Big Dipper Constellation.
As the waters subsided, people reasoned that movement and exercise
can similarly cause the internal rivers to flow more smoothly, clearing
the meridians of obstructions to health. Qigong-like exercises are
found on ancient rock art panels throughout China. Chinese shamans
used these exercises and meditations to commune with nature and
natural forces and to increase their powers of healing and divination.
2. Spirituality (Taoism and Buddhism):
A. Taoism. Qigong philosophy and techniques are mentioned in the
classic of Taoist philosophy, the Dao De Jing, written in the fourth
century B.C. "By concentrating the qi and making your body
supple, can you become like a child?" Qigong was the ideal
way for Taoists to realize their goal of wuji, an empty, alert,
boundless state of consciousness, and xing ming shuang xiu, "spirit
and body cultivated in balance." Taoists and qigong practitioners
were both looking for a harmony of yin and yang: inside and outside,
earthly and spiritual, stillness and activity. The majority of works
on qigong are still found among the approximately 1,100 texts in
the Taoist Canon.
B. Buddhism. The Buddhist emphasis on tranquillity, awareness, and
diligent practice are part of qigong. Several styles of qigong were
developed by Buddhists who needed an exercise and healing system
to complement their lengthy seated meditations.
Chinese medicine includes acupuncture, herbalism, massage, diet,
and qigong. Qigong is the preventive and self-healing aspect of
Chinese medicine and was used in the past, as today, to teach patients
how to improve their own health. The major early text on qigong
is the Dao-yin Tu "Dao-yin Illustrations" (168 B.C.).
Dao-yin is an ancient word for qigong. This work contains illustrations
of forty-four qigong postures prescribed by ancient Chinese doctors
to cure specific ailments. The patriarch of Chinese medicine, Hua
Tuo (second century A.D.) was one of the great early qigong masters.
His "Five Animal Frolics" imitate the movements of the
Crane, Bear, Monkey, Deer, and Tiger and are still practiced today.
Hua Tuo said that just as a door hinge will not rust if it is used,
so the body will attain health by gently moving and exercising all
of the limbs.
Qigong practice can improve performance in the martial arts or any
other sport. Chinese martial artists designed or helped to improve
many qigong techniques as they looked for ways to increase speed,
stamina, and power, improve balance, flexibility, and coordination,
and condition the body against injury. Qigong was a major influence
on the development of western gymnastics, thanks to Jesuit P. M.
Cibot's 1779 illustrated French translation of Taoist qigong texts:
Notice du Cong-fou [Kung-fu] des Bonzes Tao-see [Taoist priests].
Cibot's descriptions inspired Per Henrik Ling (1776-1839) to create
the first school of modern gymnastics in Sweden.
You can see why it is hard to find a simple definition for such
a comprehensive system of mental and physical development. Qigong
is a spiritual practice with roots in shamanism and Taoism. It is
a powerful method of self-healing and a warm-up for any sport. It
includes both exercise and meditation.
Qigong is practiced by more than 80 million Chinese people and probably
by tens of thousands in the United States and Europe. Qigong has
been rigorously tested in controlled scientific experiments and
clinical trials and is often used as an adjunct to conventional
allopathic medical treatment. Hypertensive patients who take medication
and practice qigong fare better than controls who only take the
medication. Similarly, there is solid evidence that qigong can improve
immune function and mental health, and prevent disabilities that
come with age. Qigong acts like Vitamin C, increasing the activity
of an enzyme that helps to deactivate free radicals, highly reactive
chemicals that promote tissue degeneration and loss of memory. In
1995 the Journal of the American Medical Association published evidence
that Taiji Quan, a form of qigong, is effective at preventing loss
of balance and falling injuries among the elderly. Researchers at
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine confirm that Taiji Quan works like
aerobics at reducing high blood pressure.
There are thousands of styles of qigong. Some are designed for general
health and well-being and may be practiced every day for a lifetime.
Others are therapeutic and targeted to cure specific problems. Qigong
techniques are suitable for men and women, young and old, athletes
and sedentary, and for the disabled. All styles are based on similar
principles: relaxed, rooted posture; straight, supple spine; diaphragmatic
respiration-- the abdomen expanding on inhalation, retracting on
exhalation; fluid movements without excess effort; and tranquil
Quality is more important than quantity. Students are advised to
learn one or two qigong styles that are enjoyable and effective.
Finding a qigong lao-shi, qigong teacher, is not an easy task. Although
qigong is popular, the training is not standardized-- I do not believe
that it can or should be-- and both quality and qualifications can
vary immensely from teacher to teacher. There are unfortunately
too many con-artists, charlatans, and magicians among our ranks,
trying to impress the public with stunts of allegedly supernatural
qi-power such as pushing objects without touching them. Students
should apply the same standards of professional excellence to qigong
teachers that they would apply to teachers of any other subject.
A qigong lao-shi should be humble and compassionate and open to
questioning and dialogue. He or she has not arrived at a final goal,
but is rather on a never-ending quest for expanded potential and
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